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Earth's Moon only ever shows us one face. It's locked into its current orientation, with a permanent nearside and farside, but it wasn't until the Apollo missions that scientists were able to see just how different the two sides really are. The nearside, with its sea of dark gray basins standing in contrast to the brilliant white powder that covers the rest of its face, varies dramatically from the farside, which is marked with countless smaller craters in a more uniform distribution.The debate over how the Moon's split personalities developed has raged for decades, but new research seems to indicate that one of the possible explanations does indeed hold water. The theory, that Earth's Moon was struck by a tiny dwarf planet long ago, is the subject of a new research paper published in Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets.Using computer models to simulate what may have happened to the Moon's surface long ago, researchers suggest the most likely scenario seems to be the collision between the Moon and a very large body. The impact of a dwarf planet as large as 480 miles across would have struck what we see today as the Moon's nearside at a speed of 14,000 miles per hour.This theory stands in contrast to other proposed explanations, including the theory that Earth may have once had not one Moon, but two. The two-moon theory suggests that Earth's moon duo may have at one point collided and merged, leaving the Moon as we see it today looking oddly unsymmetrical.The dwarf planet collision scenario assumes that whatever the body that struck the Moon was, it was in its own path around the Sun and just happened to be in the right place at the right time to strike Earth's natural satellite. This, the researchers say, would also explain why the crust on the farside of the Moon is different than that of its nearside."We demonstrate that a large body slowly impacting the nearside of the Moon can reproduce the observed crustal thickness asymmetry and form both the farside highlands and the nearside lowlands," the paper explains. "Additionally, the model shows that the resulting impact ejecta would cover the primordial anorthositic crust to form a two‐layer crust on the farside, as observed."
AKROTIRI, Cyprus (AP) — Six F35-B Lightning warplanes, the U.K.'s newest fighter, arrived Tuesday at a British air base on Cyprus for training and a systems test in the aircraft's first overseas deployment.
(Washington, D.C.) Almost nobody knows where they are at any given time, yet nuclear-armed ballistic missile submarines quietly patrol dark domains of the undersea realm in strategically vital waters around the globe, bringing the prospect of unprecedented destruction upon potential enemies -- all as a way to keep peace.Undersea strategic deterrence, intended to ensure a second, retaliatory strike in the event of a catastrophic nuclear attack upon the US, ultimately relies upon the accuracy, resilience and functionality of the Trident II D5 missile. Accordingly, missile tube construction, fire-control technology and tests shots of the nuclear weapon are intended to help the Navy construct and prepare its new Columbia-class submarines on an accelerated time frame.The Navy is preparing to shoot its Trident II D5 nuclear missile from its emerging new Columbia-class submarine as part of a plan to complete the boat ahead of schedule in the late 2020s.“We will go through the standard strategic weapons testing and eventually do a test shot to prove out the weapons system before it goes on its first patrol,” Capt. John Rucker, Program Manager, Columbia-class Fleet Ballistic Missile Submarines, said at the Navy League Sea Air Space Symposium.While the test-shot will of course involve an unarmed missile, it will function as a critical step in preparing the nuclear-armed ballistic missile submarine for decades of undersea strategic deterrence. Rucker said the Navy is now building a special system in Cape Canaveral, Fla., to test the missile systems which will be ready as soon as next year.
Heart failure missed in thousands of women because doctors assume it's a 'man's disease'
Women are less likely than men to be diagnosed with potentially fatal heart failure because of unconscious bias among doctors, new research suggests. A major study analysing more than 93,000 patients over four years found women were nine per cent less likely to receive a diagnosis and 13 per cent less likely to get the right prescription. The Oxford University researchers said this is partly due to an assumption among medics that heart failure - where the heart is no longer pumps blood around the body efficiently - is man’s disease. It is one of a number of findings indicating serious national shortcomings in the treatment of the condition, which affects one in 50 people in the UK. As well as problems diagnosing heart failure, failures in communication between doctors means patients are deprived of the long-term treatment, the data showed. The study found that just 17 per cent of patients diagnosed with heart failure in hospital had the diagnosis recorded by their GP within 12 months. Meanwhile the proportion of patients given the appropriate dose of medication ranged between 29 and 42 per cent. Nathalie Conrad, who led the research, said: “GPs should be aware that women also get heart failure. “The difference between men and women was really significant and it needs to be addressed.” She added: "Heart failure is a severe condition and early diagnosis is crucial for doctors to rapidly initiate life-saving medications. Particular attention needs to be given to women and older patients to ensure they receive the treatment they need within the recommended timeframe." In more than half - 56 per cent - of cases a heart failure diagnosis was first recorded during hospitalisation rather than a doctors' appointment, the study found. The proportion first diagnosed in an outpatient setting dropped from 56 per cent in 2002 to 36 per cent in 2014. Professor Helen Stokes-Lampard, chair of the Royal College of GPs, said: “GPs understand the importance of early diagnosis and are highly trained to look out for the symptoms of heart disease, but it is notoriously difficult to diagnose in primary care as its early symptoms are often vague and can mimic more common conditions. The new study is published in journal PLOS Medicine.
An alliance of protest and opposition organizations is demanding civilians head a new Sovereign Council meant to oversee a three-year transition toward democracy. Britain, the United States and Norway, who are working together on Sudan, urged all parties to quickly end the uncertainty and build consensus, warning against any outcome without a civilian-led government. "This will complicate international engagement, and make it harder for our countries to work with the new authorities and support Sudan’s economic development," they said in a statement.
Hundreds of babies and toddlers have been found infected with HIV in a Pakistani city, in what may be an unprecedented outbreak of the virus where children are the worst affected. Three-quarters of those testing positive for the virus since the outbreak was discovered a month ago in Rotadero in Sindh province are children, with nearly two-thirds aged five or under. Unqualified 'quack' doctors sharing dirty needles for injections, intravenous drips and blood transfusions have been blamed for spreading the virus, which attacks the immune system and leads to AIDS. Dr Maria Elena Filio-Borromeo, Pakistan director for the United Nations' AIDS and HIV programme, said she had not seen anything similar in Asia. “This one is just unprecedented. It's such a very unique kind of profile, because those infected are children.” A Pakistani paramedic takes a blood sample from a baby for a HIV test at a state-run hospital in Ratodero in the district of Larkana of the southern Sindh province Credit: AFP The children have been infected in a country where HIV treatment remains rare for the poor, and where 6,200 people died from AIDS in 2018. The outbreak was detected when a paediatrician in the area was concerned eight of her young patients were finding it difficult to shake off fevers and not getting better when given medicine. Testing found all eight were HIV positive and a screening programme was started in the city a month ago. Since then 18,418 people have been screened and 607 have been found positive. Of those, 381 are aged five or under. The figure is expected to rise as screening increases. Researchers have yet to determine the exact source of the outbreak, but believe the virus has been spread by 'quack' doctors who specialise in injections and drips, but do not use clean needles. Many local patients have a culture of demanding injections and drips when they are sick, believing they are quicker and more effective than other medicines, Dr Filio-Borromeo said. Unqualified quack doctors running backstreet clinics to fill gaps in Pakistan's overstretched and underfunded public health system, are happy to oblige. “Patients say: 'If you will not give me a drip, I will go to another doctor,'” she said. “Education is so critical. You can provide all this mass testing, all the treatment, but educate people. First on the reduction in the demand of unnecessary injections.” Newsletter promotion - global health security - end of article According to United Nations estimates, 150,000 people in Pakistan have HIV and the number is increasing by 20,000 a year. But only one-in-50 women and one-in-25 men have ever been tested. Police in Sindh earlier this months said they had shut down a string of quack clinics and said they had arrested a doctor they accused of spreading the virus. The doctor has denied wrongdoing. The region has been hit by an outbreak before. In 2016 more than 1,500 people were found to be infected, with most of them men linked to the area's sex workers. Lax hygiene by quacks may have allowed the virus to spread from this high-risk group to the wider community, doctors believe. Dr Filio-Borromeo said Pakistan had good regulations for making the virus did not spread, but those regulations were rarely enforced. Protect yourself and your family by learning more about Global Health Security
Notice of NIAAA's Participation in PAR-19-246 "Providing Research Education Experiences to Enhance Diversity in the Next Generation of Substance Abuse and Addiction Scientists (R25 - Clinical Trials Not Allowed)
Notice of Correction to PAR-19-246 "Providing Research Education Experiences to Enhance Diversity in the Next Generation of Substance Abuse and Addiction Scientists (R25 - Clinical Trials Not Allowed)"
Notice of Special Interest (NOSI): Understanding Factors in Infancy and Early Childhood (Birth to 24 months) That Influence Obesity Development
Hundreds of U.S. abortion-rights campaigners, including Democrats seeking the party's 2020 presidential nomination, rallied in front of the Supreme Court on Tuesday to protest new restrictions on abortion passed by legislatures in eight states. Many of the restrictions are intended to draw legal challenges, which religious conservatives hope will lead the nation's top court to overturn the 1973 Roe v. Wade decision that established a woman's right to terminate her pregnancy. "We are not going to allow them to move our country backward," U.S. Senator Amy Klobuchar, one of the two dozen Democrats running for president, told the crowd through a megaphone.
Methods to Improve Reproducibility of Human iPSC Derivation, Growth and Differentiation (SBIR) (R44 Clinical Trial Not Allowed)
Required Use of the xTRACT System to Prepare Data Tables for Training Grant Research Performance Progress Reports in FY 2020
Plans to target the Chinese telecommunications equipment maker over security concerns had been on the table for months and included possibly subjecting Huawei to economic sanctions, according to the people, who asked not to be identified discussing internal deliberations. The Commerce Department action last week requires American suppliers of Huawei, a crown jewel of Chinese manufacturing, to seek U.S. government permission to do business with the company.
Neither Indiana case was on the list of appeals on which the court acted on Monday morning. If the nine-justice court takes up either case, it would give the conservative majority an opportunity to chip away at the landmark 1973 Roe v. Wade ruling that legalized abortion nationwide and recognized a right under the U.S. Constitution for women to terminate pregnancies. One of the Indiana laws requires fetal remains to be buried or cremated and bans abortions performed because of fetal disability or the sex or race of the fetus.
NIH Funding Opportunities
- Notice of NIAAA's Participation in PAR-19-246 "Providing Research Education Experiences to Enhance Diversity in the Next Generation of Substance Abuse and Addiction Scientists (R25 - Clinical Trials Not Allowed)
- Notice of Correction to PAR-19-246 "Providing Research Education Experiences to Enhance Diversity in the Next Generation of Substance Abuse and Addiction Scientists (R25 - Clinical Trials Not Allowed)"
- Notice of Special Interest (NOSI): Understanding Factors in Infancy and Early Childhood (Birth to 24 months) That Influence Obesity Development
- Methods to Improve Reproducibility of Human iPSC Derivation, Growth and Differentiation (SBIR) (R44 Clinical Trial Not Allowed)
- Required Use of the xTRACT System to Prepare Data Tables for Training Grant Research Performance Progress Reports in FY 2020